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Individual, formal organizations, commonly identified as “institutions,” may be deliberately and intentionally created by people. Their development and functioning in society in general may be regarded as an instance of emergence, that is, institutions arise, develop and function in a pattern of social self-organization, which goes beyond the conscious intentions of the individual human’s involved.
What is social institution?
In any human society are social structures and social mechanisms of social order and cooperation that govern the behavior of its members. These are called social institutions and according to functional theorists perform five essential tasks namely: replacing members or procreation, teaching new members, producing, distributing and consuming goods and services, preserving order, and providing and maintaining a sense of purpose.
Social institution is a group of social positions, connected by social relations, performing a social role. It can also be defined in a narrow sense as any institution in society that works to socialize the groups of people in it.

Major Social Institutions
Family – the smallest social institution with the unique function or producing and rearing the young.

The family is as far as we know, the toughest institution we have. It is, in fact, the institution to which we owe our humanity – Margaret Mead

Kinds of Family Patterms









Conjugal or nuclear family – the primary or elementary family consisting of husband, wife and children.

Consanguine or extended family – consist of married couple, their parents, siblings, grandparents, uncles, aunts, and cousins.

Polyandry – one woman is married to two or more men at the same time

Polygamy – one man is married to two or more women at the same time

Cenogamy – two or more men mate with tow or more women in group marriage

Patrilocal – the newly married couple lives with the parents of the husband

Matrilocal – the newly married couple lives with the parents of the wife

Neolocal – when the newly married pair maintains a separate household and live by themselves.

Patriarchal – the father is considered the head and plays a dominant role

Matriarchal – the mother or female is the head and makes the major decisions

Equalitarian – both father and mother share in making decisions and are equal in authority


Multiple functions of schools
-technical economic

Manifest functions of schools
-social control
-social placement
-transmitting culture
-promoting social and political integration
-agent of change
Religion is the socially defined patterns of beliefs concerning the ultimate meaning of life; it assumes the existence of the supernatural.

Three elements of religion
-sacred and profane
-legitimation of norms
-religious community

Social institutions insures the maintenance of society through the production distribution and consumptions of goods and services. –robert dahl

Microeconomics looks at the trees, while macro economics looks at the forest. Both categories involve the construction of theories and formulation of policies activities that are the heart of economics.

Three branches of government:

Administration refers to the aggregate of persons in whose hands the reigns of government are for the time being.

What are the functions of government?

the constituent functions
the ministrant functions are those undertaken to advance the general interest of society, such as public works, public charity, and regulation of trade and industry.


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