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THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION

THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION

transformation of human societies from being hunter-gatherer based to agriculture based.
Vere Gordon Childe 
(
14 April 1892 – 19 October 1957),
better
known as V. Gordon Childe, was an Australian archaeologist andphilologist who specialised in the study of European prehistory.
 AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

Neolithic Revolution, Occurred first in the so-called FERTILE CRESCENT.
FERTILE CRESCENT

The Fertile Crescent is a region in Western Asia. It includes the comparatively fertile regions of Mesopotamia and the Levant, delimited by the dry climate of the Syrian Desert to the south and the Anatolian highlands to the north.
 
 
The region is often considered the cradle of civilization; it saw the development of many of the earliest human civilizations, and is the birthplace of writing and the wheel.
NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION
Later occurred in CHINA, the AMERICAS, parts of AFRICA and NEW GUINEA
AGRICULTURE  and PASTORALISM diffused from MESOPOTAMIA to EGYPT, western EUROPE and the INDUS VALLEY.

The Crops that People domesticated varied from place to place depending on the variety that is suitable to the place.


Animals were also domesticated by the Neolithic.
FARMING

made life easier.

Brought steady supply of food

Enabled the people to stay longer in one place.

  THE FIRST VILLAGES

world population had risen to 90 million by 4000BCE.

One of earliest villages dated by Archeologist was that of JERICHO and CATAL HUYUK.
CATAL HUYUK

Located overlooking wheat fields in the Konya Plain, southeast of the present-day city of Konya (ancient Iconium) in Turkey.
JERICHO

is a city located near the Jordan River in the West Bank of the Palestinian territories.
TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES
Invention of PLOW
CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT BY THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION

The use of ashes and manure to fertilize fields
The Invention of loom, started weaving textiles of linen and wool
The invention of wheel and used it for transportation
Hammered the metals copper, lead, and gold to make jewelry and weapons
Creation of CALENDARS.
SOCIAL CHANGES
The SOCIAL STRUCTURE of a VILLAGE life changed as a result of a complex economy.
Special groups of workers were formed
Social class with varying wealth, power, and influence started to appear.
A System of Social Class later became distinct as cities grew.
Religion became more organized.
  EMERGENCE OF CIVILIZATION

Advance cities

Specialized workers

Complex institutions

Record keeping

Advance technology
 
ADVANCE CITIES

CIVILIZATION - “civitas” Latin word which means “city”.

A city is more than a large group of people living together

A city is the center of trade for a larger area.

The earliest cities appeared in river valleys.
RIVER VALLEYS
Tigris and Euprhates
Nile river valley
Yellow river valley
 SPECIALIZED WORKERS

TRADERS

GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS

PRIESTS

SPECIALIZATION

  is the enhancement of skills of a specific kind of work.

COMPLEX INSTITUTIONS
Government became necessary

Religion became a recognized institution

Most cities had erected temples where religious activities took place

Temple became the core of both government and religious affairs

Temples served as the city’s economic center
 
  RECOR KEEPING

CUNEIFORM – system of writing in Sumeria

Document tax collections, passage of laws, storage of grain and other products.

Writing about wars, natural disasters, and the way the king managed the government


 
 

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